Mast of kaystar rough terrain fork lift trucks
The mast of rough terrain forklift is the main load-bearing structure of the pick-up device of rough terrain forklift and the mechanism for lifting goods. According to the requirements of the lifting height of forked goods, the forklift mast can be made into two-stage or multi-stage. Common ordinary forklifts mostly use two-stage mast. The two-stage mast is composed of an inner mast and an outer mast. The fork and the fork hanging on the fork move up and down along the inner mast with the help of the fork roller to drive the goods to rise or fall. The inner mast is driven by the lifting oil cylinder and guided by the roller. Tilt cylinders are set on both sides behind the gantry to tilt the mast forward or backward (the maximum forward inclination of the mast is about 10-13 and the rear elevation is about 10-13), so as to facilitate forking and stacking of goods.
Rough terrain forklift mast, also known as forklift, is a working device. Its main function is to lift goods. It is composed of inner mast, outer mast, fork, fork, sprocket, chain, forklift mast bearing, lifting cylinder, tilt cylinder and other forklift accessories.
1、 Inner and outer mast
The inner and outer mast of the forklift are portal frames with left and right columns respectively connected by different numbers of beams at the top, middle and bottom. The column is not only the main component of the mast, but also the guide rail for the lifting movement of the fork frame or the inner mast. The column section has groove shape, I-shape and other special-shaped shapes, and the material is mostly low-alloy steel. The left and right columns are connected through two to three beams to form a frame structure, and then nested together. Relying on the rollers installed on the inner and outer mast, the inner and outer mast roll along the columns of the outer mast. When the section steel with different shapes and sections is used as the portal frame column, there will be a variety of parallel combinations of internal and external portal frame columns. This design adopts the frame structure of CL type inner and outer mast.
When the fork is lifted and the inner mast is stationary, the maximum height that the fork can lift is called the free lifting height. Generally, the free lifting height is about 300mm. When the fork frame is lifted to the top of the inner mast, the mast that the inner mast and the fork frame are lifted at the same time is called full free lifting mast. Most of the sprockets of the two-stage mast forklift are directly fixed on the top of the inner mast, and the lifting oil cylinder lifts the gantry at the beginning, so it cannot be lifted freely. Free lifting forklift can enter the door opening slightly higher than it. The fully free lifting forklift is used in low places, which will not cause the disadvantage that the fork cannot rise to the specified height because the inner mast is pushed to the roof, so it is also suitable for operation in the cabin and container. In order to enable the driver to have a better field of vision, the lifting cylinder is changed to two and arranged on both sides of the mast, which is called wide field of vision mast. This kind of mast gradually replaces the ordinary mast.
Fork is the most basic and universal pick-up device of rough terrain forklift. Generally, rough terrain forklifts are equipped with two identical forks. The fork is loaded on the fork rack. Its shape is an L-shaped bar, which is divided into horizontal section and vertical section. Generally, the horizontal section and vertical section of the fork are made into a whole, which is called the integral fork. The horizontal section and vertical section of some small tonnage forklifts are made respectively and connected with a pin shaft. The horizontal section can be placed horizontally and folded up. It is called a folding fork when it is close to the vertical section. This design adopts integral fork.
rough terrain forklift forks the goods, the horizontal section of the fork is used to insert the goods or the bottom of the pallet. After forking, it is used to carry the goods. Therefore, the upper surface of the horizontal section of the train must be watered, and the lower surface of the horizontal front end is slightly inclined, so that the thickness of the fork tip is thin, and the front end is gradually narrowed. There are arcs on both sides of the fork tip, which is conducive to inserting the fork into the bottom of the goods and forking the goods. The vertical section of the fork is used to connect with the fork frame. According to different connection forms, it is divided into hook type and handover type. In order to position the fork on the fork frame, a positioning pin is arranged on the upper hook. The locating pin is inserted into the groove of the crossbeam on the fork frame to prevent the fork from moving arbitrarily. In the mediation room, lift the locating pin upward to overcome the spring force, and the pin shaft is separated from the groove of the cross beam on the fork frame, so that the fork can be moved and the spacing can be changed.
The length of international standard fork is generally 1220mm, 1370mm, 1520mm, 1670mm, 1820mm, etc., and the height of hook slot is 41cm, 51cm and 64cm.
3、 Fork rack
Fork frame, also known as sliding frame, is used to install forks or other tools and accessories, and drive the goods to rise and fall together. According to the relevant position of the fork frame in the gantry system, the weight of the goods is transmitted to the lifting chain through the fork frame, and the torque generated by the weight of the goods is transmitted to the gantry through the fork frame. When the chain drives the fork frame to rise and fall, the fork frame shall move reliably along the gantry guide rail. Therefore, the fork frame is a vertically moving load-bearing trolley, which is generally composed of two parts. The first part is a welded frame structure, which is mainly used to install suspension forks and other accessories; At the rear are two rows of roller frames equipped with guide rollers, which are welded with the front mine building. They are pulled by chains and rise and fall vertically along the guide rail of the gantry. According to the form of fork and its installation mode on the frame, there are two forms of fork frame, plate type and sliding rod type. Plate fork frame is selected in this design. When the fork is of hook type, the plate fork frame is adopted. The frame of plate fork frame has many forms. No matter which one is welded by steel plate, or the whole steel plate is cut according to the required structure, and the excess part is excavated to reduce the weight. The upper hook of the fork is hung on the upper beam of the frame, and the lower hook of the fork hooks the lower beam of the frame. As the installation dimensions of the hook and shelf have been standardized, all kinds of accessories have the same hook as the fork. The plate fork frame can easily replace the accessories, so the welded plate structure is widely used.
Forklift forks or other accessories can be installed or removed from the side of the fork frame. When a blocking rack is installed on the fork frame, it is not easy to install and disassemble the side. A gap is opened in the middle of the beam under the fork frame to facilitate the installation and disassembly of forks. In order to position the fork or other accessories on the fork frame, a number of positioning holes or positioning grooves are symmetrically made on the upper beam of the frame, and a positioning pin with spring is installed on the hook at the upper end of the fork. According to the size of the goods, the fork can slide on the fork frame to adjust the spacing between the two forks and position them in a suitable position. The roller type on the fork frame transmits the gravity of the goods to the gantry in the form of couple moment. Because the roller is a fixed spacing, the force on the gantry column is large, so it should be arranged reasonably. The lateral wheel bears the lateral force of the fork frame. The lateral force will be generated due to the misalignment of the goods on the fork or the operation on the inclined road. In order to prevent the normal movement of the fork frame to the gantry from being stuck, it is necessary to install the lateral roller, and the neutralizing roller can be used to increase the distance between the lateral rollers.
4、 Forklift sprocket
Forklift sprocket is a kind of sprocket used for forklift gantry. Its main purpose is to cooperate with the chain so that forklift accessories can be used normally.
The tightness of the sprocket should be appropriate. If it is too tight, it will increase power consumption and the bearing is easy to wear; It is too loose, and the sprocket is easy to jump and fall off the chain. The tightness of the sprocket: lift or press down from the middle of the sprocket, which is about 2% - 3% of the center distance between the two sprockets. The sprocket shall be installed on the shaft without swing and skew. In the same transmission assembly, the end faces of two sprockets shall be located in the same plane. When the center distance of sprockets is less than 0.5m, the deviation can be 1mm; When the center distance of sprocket is more than 0.5m, the deviation can be 2mm. However, there shall be no friction on the side of sprocket teeth. If the deviation of two wheels is too large, it is easy to cause chain disengagement and accelerated wear. When replacing the sprocket, pay attention to check and adjust the offset. After the sprocket is seriously worn, replace the new sprocket and the new sprocket at the same time to ensure good engagement. You cannot replace a new sprocket or a new sprocket alone. Otherwise, it will cause poor engagement and accelerate the wear of new sprocket or new sprocket. When the tooth surface of the sprocket is worn to a certain extent, it shall be turned over in time (referring to the sprocket used for adjustable surface) to prolong the service time. The new sprocket is too long or elongated after use, which is difficult to adjust. The chain links can be removed according to the situation, but they must be even. The chain link shall pass through the back of the sprocket, the locking plate shall be inserted outside, and the opening of the locking plate shall face the opposite direction of rotation. The sprocket should be filled with lubricating oil in time during operation. The lubricating oil must enter the fit gap between the roller and the inner sleeve to improve the working conditions and reduce wear. The old sprocket cannot be mixed with some new sprockets, otherwise it is easy to produce impact in the transmission and break the sprocket. If it needs to be stored for a long time, the sprocket should be removed and cleaned with kerosene or diesel oil, then coated with engine oil or butter and stored in a dry place.
5、 Forklift chain
The chain of the forklift is usually a plate chain, which bypasses the sprocket on the upper part of the inner door frame of the forklift, one end is connected to the fork frame, and the other end is connected to the hanging chain seat at the lower part of the outer door frame. When the lifting cylinder pushes the inner gantry up and down, the forklift chain drives the forklift and goods up and down, so that the forklift can load and unload goods. Forklift chain is not only an important safety component of forklift, but also one of the main transmission components of forklift mechanical transmission.
kaystar rough terrain forklift